Heart Attacks


heart_attackThe foremost leading cause of death in men and women is a heart attack. A heart attack or Myocardial Infarction happens when oxygen is inadequately provided to the heart. Oxygen is suppressed from the heart because of the lack of blood flow or low levels of blood flow. When the body has low blood flow it causes the muscles of the heart to starve from not having the appropriate amount of oxygen. When this occurs the body reacts to this and begins the dying process. This is why it is called Myocardial Infarcation because Myo stands for muscle, cardial means the heart, and infarction is death due to insufficient oxygen. Not all heart attacks are created equal and due to the variables there are many types of heart attacks hence why the foremost leading cause of death.

Due to the technology and medical advances now days there are many treatments that can be used to save a life or prevent damage or disabilities. There are many causes and risk factors to having a heart attack.

Many heart attack patients suffer from having too much cholesterol in their diets. Cholesterol is a major function in having a heart attack. Cholesterol will buildup in the blood vessels and take on a plaque like form. The plaque will narrow the arteries and will limit the flowing of blood which allows a decrease of blood flow to the heart. Without enough blood flow through the arteries the heart muscle is not able to respond accordingly and then becomes stressed.

The formation of the plaque can pose other problems as well. A blood clot can form in the narrow arteries which will block or put up a restriction so the blood cannot flow properly through the artery. A heart attack will occur when there is not enough blood flowing to the heart and will cause the heart muscle to die.

Most heart attacks are caused from the formation of the plaque and the rupture of plaque within the arteries. When the arteries become narrow it is called AHSD (atherosclerotic heart disease) or CAD (coronary artery disease). There are risk factors when experiencing a heart attack along with the causes. Risk factors to having a heart attack are stroke like symptoms, family history of heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and smoking.

There are other non-coronary disease factors that relate to a heart attack. Cocaine will make the coronary spasm. Without specific cause the coronary can spasm and then cause chest pains or discomfort (angina) to occur called coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetal angina). If there is a kink in the artery it can cause what is known as Anomalous coronary artery which also leads to chest pains along with discomfort. Without the appropriate amount of oxygen getting to the heart it leads to inadequate oxygenation.

Chest pains, pressure, fullness, shortness of breath, tightness or an ache should be assessed by a medical provider as soon as possible. These types of symptoms can alert your doctor that there may be a serious condition. Ignoring the symptoms can lead to death, being aware of these symptoms can save a life. Knowing what to look for will help provide a healthy way of living.

Pregnancy Complications

pregnancyAlthough there are many possible types of complications for women during pregnancy one of the most common and seriously hazardous problems is hypertension. Issues with hypertension during pregnancy if left untreated can lead to serious complications not only for the mother but also for the unborn baby.

Researching information about the signs and risks of hypertension during pregnancy can help to empower families against the debilitating effects. The truth is that, as a woman, you are either prone to hypertension during pregnancy or not. There are not a lot of effective ways to prevent issues with hypertension during pregnancy from happening if you are genetically prone to that risk.

Introducing healthy habits is always good for promoting the best health possible during pregnancy. Eating well, exercising and eliminating risky habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol during pregnancy is always good advice to follow.

There are serious risks associated with gestational hypertension. The risks can be managed with good prenatal care. You may be a woman who normally has no indication of problems with high blood pressure but problems arise during pregnancy. This problem most often begins early on during pregnancy and continues until the third trimester, sometimes even lasting throughout the entire pregnancy.

One risk associated with this condition is that the placenta can become compromised, meaning that not enough blood is feeding the placenta. This creates a problem of inadequate nourishment and oxygen levels for the developing baby. When this occurs the baby will likely not be born at a healthy weight. If the hypertension issue is properly managed the baby should be born at a healthy weight without complications.

If the issue of hypertension throughout the pregnancy continues to worsen without treatment it can develop into something much more dangerous called preeclampsia. This is a potentially fatal condition for the pregnant mother if left untreated. Serious complications include potential kidney and liver failure for the mother. The unborn baby will also again be deprived of nutrients and oxygen due to lack of blood flow to the placenta.

A mother can have even more complicated medical issues such as seizures if the treatment if preeclampsia throughout pregnancy goes untreated. If you have experienced complications from pregnancy that were not properly managed you have the right to legal medical representation. Although there is no way to prevent these complications during pregnancy there are proper methods for managing the complications in order to assure that the mother and baby do not become unduly high risk candidates.

Organ Damage

The kidney happens to be a vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for various functions. In order for our body to function properly kidneys need to be healthy. Not only is the kidney responsible for the fluids coming into our bodies it is also responsible for the disposing of waste fluids out of the body. The human body generally works with two kidneys however; it does have the ability to work off of one. When the kidney does not work correctly, kidney failure can occur.

Kidney failure is classified into 4 groups; prerenal, renal, post renal, and chronic renal.
Prerenal failure is when the volume of blood is reduced to the kidney or otherwise known as Hypovolemia. This can be caused by an excess loss of blood, certain medications, or dehydration. Anything that can cause fluid loss can be characterized as prerenal failure.

Renal failure is when a there is a direct relation to the kidney itself being damaged. Such failure is related to complications of infection (sepsis), muscle injury (rhabdomyolysis), blood disorders (multiple myeloma), and an inflammation to the filters of the kidney (acute glomerulonephritis).

Post renal failure is when the urine outflow is blocked or obstructed. Such factors that could cause obstruction or block the urine from flowing correctly could be caused from tumors, kidney stones, prostate cancer, an enlarged prostate or something that impedes or prevents the passage of urine.

High blood pressure, diabetes, and chronic glomerulonephritis (the inability to process waste and blood due to damage) are characteristics of chronic renal failure.

Kidney failure can be shown through various symptoms. Symptoms that can be directly related to the failure of the kidney is potassium levels in the blood would be elevated, the levels of urea would be rising in the blood which is the nitrogen in the blood that comes from wastes, a decrease of blood cell count, fatigue, loss of appetite and breathing would become fast. Some symptoms may be unnoticeable at first and the patient may not even become aware of kidney failure at the onset.

The stage of kidney failure will determine what type of care and treatment needs to take place. Blood work can show the severity and diagnosis of the failure of the kidney. Testing of the blood can show how much waste is present and can show how poorly the kidney is functioning. Urine samples can also show the amount of proteins that are currently in the urine. When protein presents in the urine, kidney failure to some degree is certain.

Another test that can be done is an ultrasound. Ultrasounds and a biopsy of the abdomen might be recommended by the physician. If it is determined that the kidney can be saved, medications or surgery might be suggested to impede further failure or loss of kidney. If the failure is so severe and the kidneys are not functioning properly a kidney transplant is a viable alternative.

Nerve, Bone & Tissue Injuries

nerve-damageWhen one thinks of an injury of the spine, paralysis is automatically comes to mind. However, a spine injury does not always have paralysis as the outcome. A spinal injury involves damage to the soft tissue of the spine. Paralysis can occur if there is spinal cord damage, but having a spine injury can be considerably painful.

Experiencing a spinal injury is quite common and due to the tissue of the spine being injured it makes it hard to prove the cause of the injury. The reasoning behind that is that such injuries like a herniated disc can occur over natural progression of age. A CT Scan or an MRI can determine the cause of injury and its extent if it is done shortly after the injury or accident. Otherwise it will be hard to determine the cause or when the injury might have taken place.

Spinal injuries are most commonly caused by car accidents, violent attacks, and falls. The most dangerous sport related injury to the spine is diving. There are also work related spinal injuries. One of the most common occupations known for having a higher risk of injury is construction workers.

Spinal injuries are divided into four sections or regions. 1. The neck region (cervical) 2. The chest region (thoracic) 3. Below the ribs (lumbar) and 4. The lower back (sacral). The severity of the injury depends on the region, for instance the neck region is the most severe and generally the most painful. The higher the injury occurs, the more severe and painful it will be.

The spinal cord is a collection of nerves that is located along side of the spine. The role of the nerves is to send signals to the brain in order for the body and brain to work in conjunction. When there is damage to the cord it prohibits the impulses to be sent therefore the body is unable able to move or feel sensations. Spinal injuries are categorized in two parts either complete or incomplete. Quadriplegia is when there are no sensations or pulses being sent to the brain to move the arms legs and paraplegia is when there are no sensations or pulses being sent to the brain to move the legs but the arms are still moveable. These two types of spinal injury are categorized as “complete”. An incomplete spinal injury just might affect one leg or one arm or one side of the body.

As if the spinal injury was not enough there are other complications that can occur when being injured. The injury tends to effect the respiratory system, bowel and bladder control, fertility, muscle atrophy, spasticity, blood pressure irregularity, gall stones, and osteoporosis.

The back bone is made up of vertebrae which act as a protectant to the spinal cord. If the bones are the only thing that was effected than paralysis is most likely avoidable. Surgery or back support will help to heal the bones while holding the spine in place.

A dislocated vertebra is when the vertebrae are knocked out of place such as a car accident. The dislocation can cause spinal cord injury and can be treated generally with surgery or traction.

Discs are jelly like cushions that are located between the vertebrae and make the back able to move and be flexible. When the discs are “bumped” or dislocated it can cause back pain and impair movement. This type of injury can sometimes be difficult to treat.

Every year there are lawsuits taken out regarding spinal injuries. It is recommended to seek legal counsel if you feel that you have a spinal injury due to a car accident or a work related injury. Often times people who have had an accident and have paralysis have to be in a wheelchair the rest of their lives. This can have a lot of medical expenses to go with it. A special van, rehabilitation, special equipment to make living a little easier at home, medical visits, medical staff to assist, and loss of wages, to name a few.

A well experienced attorney will be able to help decipher who the responsibility party is and help get the compensation you deserve. These types of injuries can be life changing and require appropriate legal action.

Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension

ppi_hypertensionWhen the arteries to the lung remain constricted and narrow at the time of delivery, a newborn is suffering from a serious medical condition known as persistent pulmonary hypertension. This medical disorder decreases the normal blood flow to the infant’s lungs and limits the amount of oxygen present in the bloodstream. Persistent pulmonary hypertension usually occurs when there is extreme breathing distress during pregnancy or immediately after delivery. It can also be caused by particular drugs the mother may take just before giving birth and in high doses during pregnancy. Doctors will use an echocardiogram to determine if the infant has this condition.

Medical professionals are trained to look for and identify symptoms of persistent pulmonary hypertension, which include rapid breathing and bluish colored skin. These are signs that the infant is not getting enough oxygen. Symptoms may present themselves at the time of birth, but in some cases, symptoms are not evident until a day or two later. If the infant’s blood pressure is low, additional symptoms like a weak pulse and pale or grayish colored skin can be present.

Persistent pulmonary hypertension happens more commonly in newborns who have reached full term or are overdue (post-term). Sometimes, other lung conditions and problems can be an underlying cause of persistent pulmonary hypertension but, it can occur in infants with no prior lung conditions or problems. During pregnancy, the infant’s lungs do not require a lot of blood flow. This is because the placenta functions to remove carbon dioxide and to deliver oxygen to the baby. It is normal for a fetus’ blood vessels to be constricted tightly since they do not need a lot of blood flow prior to birth. However, as soon as the fetus is delivered and the umbilical cord is severed, the baby’s lungs need to function properly and now do the job the placenta did in womb. The lungs begin oxygenating the blood and eliminating carbon dioxide. In order to do so, the infant needs to breath in air and the pulmonary arteries need to dilate, causing blood to flow to the lungs. Distress, including respiratory, at the time of delivery, as well as particular drugs ingested by the mother during pregnancy can prevent this process from occurring properly. This is why high doses of aspirin should be avoided during pregnancy, especially around the time of delivery.

Most infants can be treated by giving them oxygen. In more severe cases infants are placed on a ventilator while being given oxygen. Large amounts of oxygen helps to dilate the arteries to the lung. If the condition is very severe, small doses of nitric oxide may be included with the oxygen. Although rare, there are times when other treatments are not working and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a life saving alternative. The infant’s blood is extracted and then processed through a machine that increases oxygen while eliminating carbon dioxide. The blood is then recirculated into the newborn’s blood stream.


suicideDepression grabs a hold of millions of people from nation to nation, country to country, state to state, city to city, house to house, person to person. It can be debilitating, life altering, and a very frightening and scary state to be in. It not only affects the individual but the family as well.

Depression is a disease just like having diabetes or allergies. Depression is caused by various factors; it can be situational, chemical, or both. Depression can be triggered by the loss of a loved one or feeling the loss of everything.

Depression is considered a mood disorder and characterized as clinical depression or major depressive disorder. Depression is more than just feeling “sad” or “down” it may require professional treatment to help gain control. Treatment may include medications or therapy and maybe both.

Depression can be caused by various factors or multiple factors. From brain chemistry and biological differences to hormones, life events, and inherited traits. It is shown that women are more likely to be diagnosed than men, and the reasoning behind that is women are most likely to seek treatment.

Some people may experience depression once in their lifetime or have it happen multiple times over their life span. Depression can be debilitating and can cause an array of emotions and symptoms. Some symptoms happen daily and happen all day. Symptoms may include; angry outburst, insomnia, tiredness, sleeping too much, loss of enjoyment in pleasurable experiences, appetite suppression or increase in appetite, anxiety, crying, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, trouble concentrating or staying on task, thoughts of suicide or death.

Depression does not have an age limit. Depression can affect each individual differently. It can affect children, teens, and adults of all ages. Although the symptoms can be slightly different from one another they are all relatively similar. In younger children they might show clinginess, unexplained aches or pains, not wanting to go to school or not interested in eating. Teens tend to turn to alcohol or drugs, self-harm, and loss of interest in activities or social interaction. In some teens it is seen through eating disorders. Some of the symptoms might be less obvious in adults such as, tiredness, sleep disturbances, suicidal thoughts, and isolation.

Depression can cause complications if untreated. Untreated depression can turn the individual to alcohol and other substance abuse, cause social isolation, family conflicts, anxiety and other panic disorders, cutting or self-mutilation, and premature death. If you feel that a loved one was improperly treated for depressions which lead to suicide, you have the right to seek legal advice concerning any causal effects related to medications and other forms of treatment.

It is important that if you have any of the following symptoms for more than 2 weeks to seek medical and professional help. If depression is not treated it can worsen as time goes on. Often times patients are unwilling to seek the appropriate help. It is not a sign of weakness; it is an illness that can be treated with the appropriate medical help. Having suicidal thoughts is a warning to seek help as soon as possible. There is help through doctors, counselors, and suicide hotlines are 24/7.

Birth Defects

birth_defects_drugsExpectant parents rarely ever consider the uncomfortable possibility of birth defects. It can be a heart wrenching experience for any parent to be faced with how to make decisions for a new born with health problems. In realty the statistics are that four out of every one hundred babies born annually are born with some type of birth defect. Of course, some are more serious than others. Concerned parents and family members want to know the cause of the birth defects and the risk of the same problem with future unborn children.

This need for resolution can lead to genetic counseling as well as research into environmental factors. There are many environmental factors that are know to cause birth defects including personal habits such as smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol. It is also true that some medications and other environmental factors can cause birth defects without the parents knowing about the risks involved.

There are medical legal professionals that can help you determine the risks associated with birth defects as it related to any medications that may have been prescribed during pregnancy. Legal accountability is critical in such cases wrongly prescribed medications created the birth defects as often time the treatments required to manage the birth defects are costly.

Additionally, uncovering factual information about medications linked to birth defects helps to ensure that those problems are alleviated for other families in the future. It is important for parents facing this challenged to work will all possible resources available to navigate the difficult, life changing situation. Legal professionals can help insure the family’s rights to the best professional in order to deal with the circumstance both emotionally and physically. This is true for each individual as well as the family as a whole.

It is wise for parents who are facing this unexpected and new challenge to connect with those who have been through similar experiences. These connections with families who have a traveled further down the road of dealing with birth defects provide a valuable layer of support and perspective.

Learning to love and accept the new addition to the family may not be easy, but it will be a blessing to parents in the long run. Working with a legal professional can help ensure access to all avenues of legal compensation possible. Parents who are enduring this stress will often go through all the stages of grief as if the baby did not survive. This may include periods of intense sadness, regret, guilt, anger, frustration, depression and denial. Associating with other families who have been through the emotions related to having a baby with a birth defect, will go a long away towards helping parents move through the emotions toward healing and hope.

If you or a loved one have had to deal with a child born with a birth defect, get all the support you can, including legal counsel. Medical legal rights are there to protect other families and to help make restitution as far as possible for any suffering that could have been prevented.


When it comes to hair loss men are not the only gender that it affects. There are women who also struggle with hair loss as much as men do. So when it comes to hair loss people will look generally into hair loss treatment. With the many treatments on the market, patients will look for the ones that are most popular, as most do with any type of treatment.

propeciaOn the market today there is a treatment called Propecia. Propecia ranks at the top of the list of popularity. It is known to have little side effects, relatively simple to take, and effective. However, there is one warning that should be paid close attention to. The warning is for women of childbearing age. Propecia literature alerts women who are currently pregnant or potentially plan to become pregnant.

Propecia can be digested by women who are no longer the age of childbearing or past the menopausal stage of life if a medical provider feels this is an effective treatment for her.

The warning lists the dangers of exposure to this medication by just being handled. Tablets that become broken or crushed have ingredients that have been known to create abnormalities in the unborn male fetus’ sex organs. The drug is not dangerous necessarily for women to take; it is the risk on the fetus that is dangerous.

Hypospadias is an abnormality that happens to the unborn male fetus’ genitalia when the mother has had threatening contact with the hair loss treatment itself. Hypospadias is when the tip of the penis does not have the opening for the urethra on the tip, but rather it is found on the shaft at the bottom of the penis. When the opening of the penis or otherwise known as the urethra where the urine exits the body, is located on the bottom of the shaft this is considered the perineum. The perineum links the scrotum to the anus. When this occurs the scrotum does not allow the testes to descend.

Researchers believe that the reason that Propecia has effect on an unborn fetus is it is believed to prevent testosterone (male hormone) from changing into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is known to create hair follicles. Without DHT hair follicles can not form.

Therefore if taking Propecia affects the hormone of DHT it is true to say it will interrupt the natural process of the male genital organs from developing correctly. It is important to weigh the risks for women when considering taking the hair loss treatment to the complications that can occur to the unborn male fetus.

Other side effects that can happen to men using this treatment includes but not limited to impotence (erectile dysfunction, testicular pain, abnormal ejaculation, depression, development of male breasts, and lower ejaculatory volume.

Therefore, as with all drugs it is important to understand the possible risks, warnings, side effects and other complications that can occur with beginning a new treatment of any sorts. It is important to consult with a medical provider to discuss your options when treating hair loss.


pradaxaPradaxa is a newer drug, which came on the scene in the United States in 2010. The intent of Pradaxa is to thin the blood in order to reduce the risk of strokes. Unfortunately Pradaxa has also been connected with patients that have experienced excessive and uncontrolled bleeding as a result of taking the medication.

Pradaxa was originally designed to have fewer side effects than competing blood thinner medications. Pradaxa was also promoted as a blood thinner drug that required less maintenance. Within a few short years of being on the market as a widely used blood thinner medication, Pradaxa has been tied to at least five hundred deaths. The deaths were reported to have been the result of uncontrollable hemorrhaging.

Additionally Pradaxa has other serious side effects involving the liver and the heart. The most prevalent negative side effect is uncontrolled bleeding which can cause brain hemorrhages, which manifest much like the effects of a stroke. This is painfully ironic since Pradaxa has been marketed as a medication intended to prevent strokes.

The publication QuarterWatch, which is a non-profit institution established to ensure the practice of safe medicine, reported many negative reports on Pradaxa in the year 2011. According to combined reports from the FDA and QuarterWatch over 3,500 adverse experiences associated with the medication were reported in 2011. Of those reports over 500 resulted in death.

Increased risk of angina and heart attacks has also been attributed to Pradaxa. According to research performed in 2012 the clinical trials found an increased risk of heart attacks for patients taking Pradaxa. The results of the research prompted advisement for medical professionals to seriously consider the potential harmful cardiovascular results from taking Pradaxa. There were similar studies that year resulting in the same increased cardiovascular risk warnings.

Additionally in 2011 Pradaxa was linked to issues related to internal bleeding when the patient fell or experienced what would be considered a minor injury. If a patient falls while taking Pradaxa it may require an extended stay in the hospital to get the bleeding back under control.

Families who have had to deal with the serious and sometimes fatal side effects of Pradaxa are filing product liability lawsuits. These federal lawsuits are large in number since an alarming number of patients taking Pradaxa have suffered with serious side effects. What may be the most disturbing fact is that there is no known treatment for bringing the bleeding back under control in a timely manner once Pradaxa has caused the excessive bleeding. Other blood thinning medications can be controlled by the use of vitamin K to stop excessive amounts of bleeding, but this is not the case with Pradaxa.

It is deplorable that in light of these serious risks the best that the pharmaceutical companies can say is that they are currently “working on” the antidote for the unintended hemorrhaging caused by Pradaxa. Medical professionals keep a close watch on patients in order to monitor symptoms such as anemia or renal malfunction to determine if internal bleeding is a problem. This may be the only line of defense for patients who are faced with the risks associated with Pradaxa.


fosamaxIn the medical world today there is a vast amount of medication used to treat health ailments and conditions. However, we would all like to trust that all medications are safe and reliable. The truth is that all medications are not created equal. Although there are many positive effects of medications, there are always risks and warnings that should be seriously considered before beginning a new type of medication. Unfortunately, some medications can actually do more harm than good.

An example of a drug on the market doing more harm that good is called Fosamax. Fosamax is a medication prescribed for patients that are suffering from Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a medical condition that affects the bones. As one ages, the bones become brittle and frail and over time bone density and bone mass begin to decrease. Instead of Fosamax being an aid to this condition as intended, it causes serious adverse reactions in patients.

Over the last 5 years dentists and oral surgeons have noticed jaw decay in patients that are also taking Fosamax. In the beginning, Fosamax was only a hazard to patients that were diagnosed with cancer. However, over recent years oral surgeons have become more certain that oral bisphosphonates (drugs used to treat osteoporosis) such as Fosamax are in direct correlation with jawbone decay called osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) if used over a long period of time.

The manufacturer of Fosamax is experiencing approximately 10,000 lawsuits regarding cases of patients using Fosamax for extended periods of time. The manufacturer of Fosamax is Merek. Merek is in the top two of drug manufacturers in the U.S. They will be facing a federal court case involving an elderly woman who is 60 years old and is claiming that taking Fosamax caused her jawbone to rot away after using the drug for 6 years. She feels that Merek withheld information and neglected to state the risks and hazards of taking Fosamax.

Health risks that have been published from using Fosamax are jaw pain, loose teeth, numbness, gum infection, severe digestive issues such as stomach pain, nausea, muscle cramps or pain, diarrhea, and heartburn. Other issues reported are chest pain, anemia, blood clotting conditions and struggling with swallowing. If any these symptoms occur while taking Fosamax a consultation with a medical professional as soon as possible is suggested.

Included with the side effects that Fosamax has reported, the patient also has to sit in an upright position after taking the medication for 30 minutes or more severe side effects can occur. Due to Fosamax causing stomach issues it is advised that patients avoid taking antacids or any other supplements that include minerals such as magnesium, calcium, aluminum, or any other mineral which interrupt the absorption of Fosamax.